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IranIran Member

Iran is the 17th largest country in the world in area at 1,745,150 km2, and has a population of about 82 million people. It is a country of particular geostrategic significance, owing it to its location in the Middle East and central Eurasia. Iran borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan to the north. As Iran is a littoral state of the inland Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan and Russia are also Iran's direct neighbours to the north. Iran borders Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, Iraq to the west, Turkey to the northwest and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south. Bahrain Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia are maritime neighbours of Iran to the south. Tehran is the capital, being the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial, and industrial centre of the nation. Iran ranks first in the world in terms of natural gas reserves and third in terms of oil reserves. Iran also ranks the second in terms of production and export of oil in OPEC.

Iran ranked as the second largest economy in the MENA region with a GDP of about USD 549 billion in 2012.

Apart from oil and natural gas, the country’s other natural resources include coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc and sulphur.

According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, adopted in 1979 and amended in 1989, the structure of the government consists of legislative, judicial, and executive powers, all functioning separately from each other. Meanwhile, the powers are supervised by a Supreme Religious Leader (Valie-Faghih), who is elected by the Assembly of Leadership Experts, who are, in turn, elected by the people. The Parliament is the law making organ and its members are elected for a four-year term by popular vote. The executive power is headed by the President, who is elected for a four-year term through direct popular vote. The Ministers obtain the vote of confidence from the Parliament. Being appointed by the Supreme Religious Leader, the Head of the Judicial Power, is the highest judicial authority.

The Supreme Leader of Islamic Republic of Iran is HE Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. HE Seyed Ebrahim Raisi assumed the office of the President of the country in August 2021.

Iran is a founding member of the GECF, IEF, and OPEC; and a member of ECO, IMF, NAM, OIC, and the UN.

Photo: Sunset over ancient city of Yazd

Major Indicators

Land ( 1,745,150
Population (inhabitants) 81,800,269
Capital Tehran
Continent Middle East
Language(s) Persian(official)
National currency Iranian Rial
Time Zone GMT+3.5
Labor force (inhabitants) 27,509,211
GDP (current billion US$) NA
GDP per capita (current US$) NA
GDP growth (percentage) NA
Exports of Goods and Services (current billion US$) NA
Proven natural gas reserves (billion c.m.) 33,899
Natural gas marketed production (billion c.m.) 233.97
Pipeline exports (billion c.m.) 12.24
Domestic natural gas consumption (billion c.m.) 227.82


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